By Laura A. Janda
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Additional info for A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental
Oned in chapter 1, Schlesinger did a cross-linguistic study of the relat hold between the instrumental and two other relations which are freessed by the same case: manner and comitative. In both instances he here is no hard and fast boundary between the meanings; "the instruomitative are really only two extreme points on what is a conceptual (Schlesinger 1979: 308). Schlesinger extrapolates from his findings a category is composed of a system of continua. This is significant nitive semantics makes the same claim: nodes in a network are places tiations tend to cluster, but this does not mean that the semantic space m is empty; on the contrary, there usually are transitional examples.
Schematicity" identifies the abstract way in which s of a category are united. "Semantic extension" refers to the system positions which individual schemas occupy in the network. In the extensive investigation presented in the analysis I have identified g classification of subtypes of semantic extension: ations in the shape of schemas paradigmatic variation - variation in the portion of the schema which represents the case-marked entity syntagmatic variation - variation in the composition of the event chain (removal of participants, replacement of the verb with a copular construction) II.
Starosta tries to develop a new notation which will "allow us to represent the fact that these relations have their own characteristic semantic content, a fact that a pure configurational representation is incapable of coping with" (Starosta 1976: 18). Criticisms of Chomsky's theory for its lack of a semantic component come not only from without, but, more importantly, from those who accept his framework as well. Bachman (1980: 47) uses Chomsky's transformations to test the status of the subjective dative in Russian, but finds it "more intuitively appealing to have morphological case assigned in accordance with basic semantic relations than by the application of a superficial mechanical operation called 'case marking' ".