Analytic mapping and geographic databases by G. David Garson

By G. David Garson

The concepts of analytic mapping and of geographic details structures (GIS) became more and more vital instruments for examining census, crime, environmental and shopper info. The authors of this crucial quantity speak about information entry, transformation and instruction matters, and the way to pick the fitting analytic pics thoughts via a assessment of varied GIS and customary information resources, corresponding to census items, TIGER documents, and CD-ROM entry. They describe each one technique, assessment its assumptions and specifications and supply illustrative output for pattern information utilizing chosen software program. Researchers and directors who have to deal with facts of geographic destinations will locate this ebook an invaluable advisor to structures for storing, retrieving,

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TIGER can be joined to a GIS software package such as Safari (by Geographic Data Technology). After the researcher has selected the appropriate data set and software, he or she can turn directly to analytic mapping. The authors review the many types of mapsUBC, dasymetric, block, isarithmic, to name a fewand explain myriad intriguing, seldom-seen summary statistics, such as geographic means, location quotients, and areal correspondence. Statistical appreciation leads to actual modeling with maps, Page vi where multivariate regression techniques may be pursued, as GIS software is interfaced with standard statistical packages such as SAS.

Microcomputer packages such as MapInfo are now used in most police departments to automate the process of producing maps of police jurisdictions with "pin" information on crime occurrence (Robb, 1990, p. 15). RealTime MapInfo can even link to satellite technology to track police cars and map their movement on maps that change in real time (Schroeder, 1991). Page 13 Many software packages have been developed specifically for planning purposes, often public sector in nature, and these lend themselves to many social science applications as well.

Sheryaev (1977) and others have developed methods for standardizing and improving the efficiency of raster methods in cartography. Commercial graphics packages such as PC Paintbrush and Applause Paint support raster graphics. While raster images can be very detailed and colorful, they cannot be manipulated flexibly and play little role in most GIS systems. A process called autotracing converts raster into vector files. Actual editing of vector or raster files may be accomplished within more powerful GIS packages, or may be accomplished through CAD (computer-aided design) software, which allows editing, overlaying, labeling, and other manipulation of images.

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