Assessing and Managing the Ecological Impacts of Paved Roads by Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density, National

By Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density, National Research Council

All stages of highway improvement - from building and use by way of autos to upkeep - impact actual and chemical soil stipulations, water circulation, and air and water caliber, in addition to crops and animals. Roads and site visitors can regulate natural world habitat, reason vehicle-related mortality, hamper animal migration, and disperse nonnative pest species of crops and animals. Integrating environmental concerns into all stages of transportation is a vital, evolving procedure. The expanding expertise of environmental concerns has made street improvement extra advanced and debatable. over the last twenty years, the Federal road management and country transportation firms have more and more famous the significance of the results of transportation at the traditional setting. This record offers tips on how one can reconcile the several objectives of highway improvement and environmental conservation. It identifies the ecological results of roads that may be evaluated within the making plans, layout, development, and upkeep of roads and gives a number of options to aid greater comprehend and deal with ecological affects of paved roads.

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S. Environmental Protection Agency environmental policy statement Endangered Species Act xix Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html xx Abbreviations ETAP FHWA FLH FPPA FTA GIS HEP HGM IRI ISTEA LARCH LOS LRTP LWCFA MBTA MOU MPO NAAQS NAS NCHRP NEPA NGO NHPA NHS NOAA NOX NPDES NPS NRC NWP PM10 ROD SAMP SEA SEF SEMP SIP SPGP STIP environmental technical advisory team Federal Highway Administration federal lands highway Farmland Protection Policy Act Federal Transit Administration geographic information system habitat evaluation procedure hydrogeomorphic method international roughness index Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act landscape ecological analysis and rules for the configuration of habitat model level of service long-range transportation plan Land and Water Conservation Fund Act Migratory Bird Treaty Act memorandum of understanding metropolitan planning organization National Ambient Air Quality Standards National Academy of Sciences National Cooperative Highway Research Program National Environmental Policy Act nongovernmental organization National Historic Preservation Act national highway system National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration nitrogen oxides national pollutant discharge elimination system National Park Service National Research Council nationwide permit particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in diameter record of decision special area management plan street edge alternatives southeastern ecological framework Strategic Environmental Management Program state implementation plan state program general permit state transportation improvement plan Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

1 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................. 14 Committee Charge and Response, 17 What Is Different and New in This Report? S. ROAD SYSTEM .................... S. Road System, 37 Definitions and Characteristics of Roads, 41 Ownership and Maintenance Responsibilities, 54 Current Status and Future Trends, 54 Summary, 60 3 EFFECTS OF ROADS ON ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS................... 62 Introduction, 62 Definitions, 63 Ecological Condition—Ecosystem Goods and Services, 65 Literature Review, 66 Information Gaps, 95 Summary, 96 xxiii Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

All rights reserved. html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. S. S. S. S. S. Environmental Protection Agency environmental policy statement Endangered Species Act xix Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html xx Abbreviations ETAP FHWA FLH FPPA FTA GIS HEP HGM IRI ISTEA LARCH LOS LRTP LWCFA MBTA MOU MPO NAAQS NAS NCHRP NEPA NGO NHPA NHS NOAA NOX NPDES NPS NRC NWP PM10 ROD SAMP SEA SEF SEMP SIP SPGP STIP environmental technical advisory team Federal Highway Administration federal lands highway Farmland Protection Policy Act Federal Transit Administration geographic information system habitat evaluation procedure hydrogeomorphic method international roughness index Intermodal Surface Transportation Equity Act landscape ecological analysis and rules for the configuration of habitat model level of service long-range transportation plan Land and Water Conservation Fund Act Migratory Bird Treaty Act memorandum of understanding metropolitan planning organization National Ambient Air Quality Standards National Academy of Sciences National Cooperative Highway Research Program National Environmental Policy Act nongovernmental organization National Historic Preservation Act national highway system National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration nitrogen oxides national pollutant discharge elimination system National Park Service National Research Council nationwide permit particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in diameter record of decision special area management plan street edge alternatives southeastern ecological framework Strategic Environmental Management Program state implementation plan state program general permit state transportation improvement plan Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

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