By Jan Crols, Michiel Steyaert (auth.)
The global of instant communications is altering very speedily considering the fact that many years. The creation of electronic information verbal exchange together with electronic sign strategy ing has created the root for the advance of many new instant purposes. top of the range electronic instant networks for voice conversation with worldwide and native insurance, just like the GSM and DECT procedure, are just faint and early examples of the big variety of instant purposes that might develop into on hand within the rest of this decade. the recent evolutions in instant communications set new standards for the trans ceivers (transmitter-receivers). larger working frequencies, a decrease strength consump tion and a truly excessive measure of integration, are new necessities which ask for layout techniques really assorted from the classical RF layout strategies. The integrata bility and gear intake relief of the electronic half will additional enhance with the ongoing downscaling of applied sciences. this is often even if different for the analog transceiver front-end, the half which plays the interfacing among the antenna and the electronic sign processing. The analog front-end's integratability and tool intake are heavily on the topic of the actual boundaries of the transceiver topology and never rather a lot to the scaling of the used know-how. bankruptcy 2 offers a close research of the extent of integration in present transceiver awareness and analyzes their boundaries. In bankruptcy three of this publication the advanced sign strategy for the research and synthesis of multi-path receiver and transmitter topologies is introduced.
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Integration is low and the power consumption and cost price stay high. This is the opposite of what is required by the newly emerging wireless applications. In view of these problems some progress has been made over the last years towards a better integration of transceivers. Zero-IF receivers and direct upconversion transmitters have been developed and implemented. Their operation is based on respectively quadrature upconversion and quadrature downconversion. Both are multi-path topologies which highly depend on matching between two parallel analog signal processing paths.
It becomes interesting when one defines operations on these signals which conserve the properties of the proposed representation. For complex signals this means that the properties of multiplication and convolution should be preserved. This is true for the complex multiplication( (A+jB)·(C+jD) = (AC-BD)+j(AD+BC) ), which is the reason why the complex notation (defined by P = -I) is preferred for the representation of two-signal pairs. 3. 1 The Complex Amplifier A complex amplifier multiplies a complex signal with a constant.
15 can be calculated. An applied frequency component will be magnified with a factor A, but it will also be mirrored to its opposite frequency and magnified with a factor ~A. The superposition principle for linear systems is still valid. The ratio between the unwanted mirrored signal and the wanted original signal will therefore be ~A/ A. An amplitude error of 1 %gives a -40 dB crosstalk between positive and negative frequencies. The results of a phase error between the two signal paths is also an unwanted mirroring of signals to their opposite frequencies.