By Naoko Matsumoto, Hidetaka Bessho, Makoto Tomii
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In 1853, few jap humans knew state referred to as the US even existed.
for hundreds of years, Japan had remoted itself from the skin global by means of refusing to alternate with different international locations or even refusing to aid shipwrecked sailors, overseas or jap. The country's humans nonetheless lived less than a feudal procedure like that of Europe within the heart a long time. yet every thing started to switch whilst American Commodore Perry and his troops sailed to the Land of the emerging sunlight, bringing with them new technology and know-how, and a brand new lifestyle.
«Кембриджская история» – результат совместных трудов ведущих специалистов по японской истории и культуре. Издание объединило на своих страницах все имеющееся на сегодняшний день знание о Японии. Шесть томов «Истории» охватывают исторический период с eight в. до н. э. по наши дни, освещая практически все аспекты японской культуры: религиозные верования, ритуалы, искусство, архитектуру, народное творчество, политику и экономику.
The 12 months 1543 marked the start of a brand new international awareness in Japan with the arriving of shipwrecked Portuguese retailers on Tanegashima Island in southern Japan. different Portuguese quickly and Japan grew to become conscious of a global past India. After the retailers got here the 1st missionary Francis Xavier in 1549, starting the Christian century in Japan.
Additional info for Coexistence and Cultural Transmission in East Asia
Such social interaction in most hunter-gatherer societies is based on the recognition of kinship networks and does not extend to the scale of LDI. Usually, as the distance between people increases, the nature of reciprocity tends to become more negative (Sahlins 1972). Sahlins points out that generalized reciprocity is seen among family members while balanced reciprocity is practiced among village members, and negative reciprocity with non-kin or outsiders. Negative reciprocity includes bargaining, fraud, and stealing and thus can be considered to be the most economic among the three kinds of reciprocity.
Helms 1979, 1988, 1993; Kawano 2001; Kristiansen 1991; Matsugi 2009). By obtaining rare objects, LDI can be a mechanism that creates, maintains, and expands the differences in the society. As for the relationship between the object and the place, the evaluation of the object is closely related to the evaluation of the place of its origin. When the place has very important religious meaning, objects that are produced there would also acquire religious importance. This relationship between the evaluation of the place and the object may be interactive.
Thus, the relationship between provider and acquirer of the transported objects is conditioned by cosmological rather than sociological principles. Helms’s model of long-distance acquisition is based on her study of Panamanian chiefdoms (Helms 1979). This type of LDI can often be found in chiefdom societies as a means for social elites to obtain prestige goods. It also plays an important role in the process of social stratification from tribal society through chiefdom to state, as can be seen in the case of shell bracelet trade in the Yayoi period, Japan (Matsumoto 2000b; also see Chapter 2, this volume).