Current Protocols in Toxicology by Mahin D. Maines

By Mahin D. Maines

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However, randomly integrated transgenes can result in functional inactivity of a gene product, and, vice versa, transgenes can be targeted for overexpression using ES cell technology (see discussion of Production of Tg Mice by Gene Targeting). Tg mice are a unique tool for understanding how interactions between individual genes and the environment affect human health. 1). Transgenic technology is rapidly evolving, and future developments will allow scientists the opportunity to address difficult questions in toxicology where no specific targets have been identified.

As appropriate, the sequence of analysis outlined in the decision trees (see Figs. 4) is followed. Clinical Pathology Statistical Approaches to the Design of Toxicology Studies A number of clinical chemistry and hematology parameters are now assessed in the blood and urine collected from animals in chronic toxicity studies. In the past (and still, in some places), the accepted practice has been to evaluate these data using univariant-parametric methods (primarily t-tests and/or analysis of variance, ANOVA); however, it can be shown that this is not the best approach on a number of grounds.

For example, the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system is involved in metabolic oxidation of a number of endogenous and exogenous materials, including fatty acids, steroids, drugs, and environmental toxicants. The system has been well characterized in adults but little is known about its role during development. , 1995). , 1996). A second example of the value of transgenic technology in developmental biology is the homeobox gene sys- tem, which influences embryonic development by determining the order of expression of various regulators of embryonic development.

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