By Nathaniel Laor, Joseph Agassi (auth.)
1. normal The time period "diagnostics" refers back to the basic thought of prognosis, to not the research of particular diagnoses yet to their common framework. It borrows from varied sciences and from assorted philosophies. ordinarily, the final framework of diagnostics used to be no longer extraordinary from the framework of medication. It was once no longer taught in distinct classes in any systematic method; it was once no longer accorded certain cognizance: scholars absorbed it intuitively. there's virtually no entire research of diagnostics. The guide in analysis supplied in clinical faculties is completely particular. scientific guideline contains (in addition to important heritage info, akin to anatomy and body structure) particular guide in nosology, the speculation and category of ailments, and this contains details on diagnoses and prognoses of numerous illnesses. what's the reason for the overlook of diagnostics, and of its built-in educating? the most reason could be the incidence of the view of diagnostics as part-and parcel of nosology. during this ebook nosology is taken as a given, self sufficient box of research, which invitations nearly no reviews; we will freely borrow from it a number of vital basic theses and some examples. we strive to combine right here 3 stories: ll of how nosology is utilized in the diagnostic approach; of the diagnostic method as a department of utilized ethics; ~ of the diagnostic strategy as a department of social technological know-how and social technology.
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Most computer use in medicine is limited to a place on the clinic receptionist's desk and not in the diagnostician's clinic. Yet the computer has effected a quiet revolution in medicine. Its impact is exciting and extremely beneficial yet one cannot responsibly overlook it as a potential source of great worries. A review of the literature on the use of computers in daily clinical diagnostic encounters gives rise to concern and puzzlement. There have been a few teams of Artificial Intelligence researchers aided by medical practitioners and researchers who have seriously attempted to develop pioneering systems of software in the service of diagnosis.
If the diagnostic use of intuition is forbidden, then perhaps the way to computerize medical diagnosis should be found; if the use of intuition in diagnosis is permitted, then perhaps the way to control it should be found. Medical intuition defies description but perhaps there are ways to describe some of its significant characteristics. If so, how might it be amenable to, or at least compatible with, the use of established rules and thus adaptable to computer use? We will explore these questions in later chapters.
This is not the only political situation impinging on medicine, though regrettably it is one of the most topical. This should suffice as the preliminary discussion concerning the two conflicting tendencies, in discussions of medicine: the tendency towards isolating the problem at hand and the tendency towards developing an integrative view out of isolated pictures. Both tendencies are of extreme value individually, but using them together requires care. INTRODUCTION 19 The integrative tendency is to discuss matters in their broadest context and to make them look as realistic as possible; this tendency must be checked by its opposite, the tendency is to isolate, to abstract cases from their context artificially in attempts to generalize them and reach interesting insights; but this tendency often leads physicians to the notorious view of patients as mere cases and must thus be humanized.