Genetic Programming: An Introduction by Wolfgang Banzhaf, Peter Nordin, Robert E. Keller, Frank D.

By Wolfgang Banzhaf, Peter Nordin, Robert E. Keller, Frank D. Francone

Because the early Nineties, genetic programming (GP)-a self-discipline whose target is to let the automated new release of laptop programs-has emerged as the most promising paradigms for quick, effective software program improvement. GP combines organic metaphors gleaned from Darwin's concept of evolution with computer-science methods drawn from the sector of laptop studying to create courses which are able to adapting or recreating themselves for open-ended tasks.This designated advent to GP presents a close evaluation of the topic and its antecedents, with broad references to the printed and on-line literature. as well as explaining the elemental idea and demanding algorithms, the textual content contains useful discussions overlaying a wealth of power purposes and real-world implementation strategies. software program execs desiring to appreciate and observe GP recommendations will locate this e-book a useful useful and theoretical advisor.

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Our choice of words above was deliberate - GP's learning algo¬ rithm was inspired by the theory of evolution and molecular biology. No claim is made here or in the GP community that the GP learning algorithm duplicates biological evolution or is even closely modeled on it. At most we can say that GP learning algorithms have been loosely based on biological models of evolution and sexual reproduc¬ tion. This chapter touches on some aspects of evolution and biology that may help the reader understand GP.

1959]. Friedberg's programs were 64 instructions long and were able to manipulate, bitwise, a 64-bit data vector. Each instruction had a virtual "opcode" and two operands, which could reference either the data vector or the instructions. An instruction could jump to any other instruction or it could manipulate any bit of the data vector. Friedberg's system learned by using what looks a lot like a modern mutation operator - random initialization of the individual solutions and random changes in the instructions.

An ML system goes through the training set and attempts to learn from the examples. In GP, this means that the system must learn a computer program that is able to predict the outputs of the training set from the inputs. In more traditional machine learning terminology, GP must find a computer program that can predict the class from the features of the learning domain. Finally, the researcher must appraise the quality of the learning that has taken place. One way to appraise the quality of learning is 2 A leading stock market indicator in the United States.

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