History of Military Cartography: 5th International Symposium by Elri Liebenberg, Imre Josef Demhardt, Soetkin Vervust

By Elri Liebenberg, Imre Josef Demhardt, Soetkin Vervust

This quantity gathers 19 papers first offered on the fifth foreign Symposium of the ICA fee at the heritage of Cartography, which came about on the college of Ghent, Belgium on 2-5 December 2014. the general convention topic was once 'Cartography in occasions of conflict and Peace', yet choice was once given to papers facing the army cartography of the 1st global struggle (1914-1918). The papers are categorised via interval and neighborhood sub-theme, i.e. army Cartography from the 18th to the 20 th century; WW I Cartography in Belgium, critical Europe, etc.

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2). 2 Georeferencing Because features on the scanned original early maps are just images, these features need to be digitized as points, lines, or polygons to create vector GIS layers in order to perform spatial analysis. Once vector layers are created from the original early maps, the attribute data, such as the population of the administrative divisions, can be added and linked with these spatial features. 32 Fig. 1 SPC locations during the Portuguese campaign Fig. 2 Battlefront localities P.

The principle of selecting the first common control point should be based on which point will provide the best possible overall average fit of the two maps. Geometrically the point in the centre of a map is deemed the best for this purpose. The principle of choosing the second common control point is determined by which point will most accurately show the scale and orientation of the maps when it is connected to the first common control point. The most distant point from the centre is the best for this purpose as it has the smallest percentage of error in the overlay process when connected to the first control point.

The departure of the SPC team to Flanders happened gradually. Under the Convention of January 1917, Britain had lent seven ships to Portugal for the transportation of the expeditionary troops which were joined by two Portuguese ships—the Gil Eanes and the Pedro Nunes. As Spain remained a neutral country, some of the members of the SPC travelled by train wearing civilian clothing.  11). Due to the number of soldiers who were arriving from Portugal, the Portuguese postal stations always remained close to the cantonments of CEP units which im- 28 P.

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