Interfacial phenomena and colloid stability. Volume 2 : by Tharwat F. Tadros

By Tharwat F. Tadros

This quantity providesthe wisdom that's crucial for thecomposition of the complicated multi-phase structures used diversified parts of software. It allows the actual and formula chemist in addition to the chemical engineer in designing the formula at the foundation of a rational method, and the formula scientist to raised figuring out the criteria chargeable for generating a stableproduct with optimal software stipulations

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2) when compared with macroemulsions. This is schematically illustrated in Fig. 28 which shows the reduction in Gmin with increasing δ/R. 1 Can approach thermodynamic stability Fig. 28: Importance of adsorbed layer thickness to particle size ratio (δ/R). These systems approach thermodynamic stability against flocculation and/or coalescence. The very small size of the droplets and the dense adsorbed layers ensure lack of deformation of the interface, lack of thinning and disruption of the liquid film between the droplets and hence coalescence is also prevented.

5 × 104 Jm−3 . e. 1 %. 9 %) is dissipated as heat. 37) where t is the time during which emulsification occurs. Break-up of droplets will only occur at high ε values, which means that the energy dissipated at low ε levels is wasted. Batch processes are generally less efficient than continuous processes. This shows why with a stirrer in a large vessel, most of the energy applied at low intensity is dissipated as heat. In a homogenizer, p is simply equal to the homogenizer pressure. Several procedures may be applied to enhance the efficiency of emulsification when producing nanoemulsions: (i) One should optimize the efficiency of agitation by increasing ε and decreasing dissipation time.

E. t∗ = 1 . 26) Many cosmetic emulsions behave as semi-solids with long t∗ . e. G???? ≫ G???????? and G???? shows small dependence on frequency. Thus, the behavior of many emulsion creams is similar to 38 | 1 Cosmetics and personal care G* G″ G′ ω* Fig. 14: Schematic representation of the variation of G∗ , G???? and G???????? with ω for a viscoelastic system. that of many elastic gels. 5) and in many systems a polymeric thickener is added to the continuous phase for stabilization of the emulsion against creaming (or sedimentation) and to produce the right consistency for application.

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