By B. V. Gnedenko, A. N. Kolmogorov, K. L. Chung, J. L. Doob
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Extra info for Limit Distributions for Sums of Independent Random Variables. Revised Edition
Each of four transmitted bits is classified as either in error or not in error. 2-3. In the final inspection of electronic power supplies, either units pass or three types of nonconformities might occur: functional, minor, or cosmetic. Three units are inspected. 2-4. The number of hits (views) is recorded at a high-volume Web site in a day. 2-5. Each of 24 Web sites is classified as containing or not containing banner ads. 2-6. An ammeter that displays three digits is used to measure current in milliamperes.
Some of the basic set operations are summarized below in terms of events: The union of two events is the event that consists of all outcomes that are contained in either of the two events. We denote the union as E1 ´ E2. The intersection of two events is the event that consists of all outcomes that are contained in both of the two events. We denote the intersection as E1 ¨ E2. The complement of an event in a sample space is the set of outcomes in the sample space that are not in the event. We denote the complement of the event E as EЈ .
A mathematical model (or abstraction) of the physical system is developed. It need not be a perfect abstraction. For example, Newton’s laws are not perfect descriptions of our physical universe. Still, they are useful models that can be studied and analyzed to approximately quantify the performance of a wide range of engineered products. Given a mathematical abstraction that is validated with measurements from our system, we can use the model to understand, describe, and quantify important aspects of the physical system and predict the response of the system to inputs.