By V.I. Ferronsky
The basics of tools in nuclear geophysics and their functional purposes in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, agriculture and environmental technological know-how are mentioned during this e-book. The equipment and gear in keeping with absorption and scattering of gamma and neutron radiation for choice of density and soil moisture in ordinary stipulations are offered in Chapters 2, three, and four. The theoretical basics and installations of the penetration logging recommendations the place gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron logging together with static penetration shape universal complexes for engineering geology and hydrogeology exploration with out uninteresting holes are defined. The constructed structures and useful use penetration logging installations for functions on land and marine cabinets are defined in Chapters five, 6, 7, and eight. The actual basics for using the common reliable and radioactive isotopes for research of the worldwide hydrological cycle are supplied. The experimental information, starting place and distribution of cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes within the oceans, atmospheric moisture, floor and underground waters are offered in Chapters nine, 10, and eleven. The assets and prerequisites of the radioactive infection of the normal waters are mentioned in Chapters 12 and 13.
This booklet can be of curiosity to scientists and researchers who use nuclear geophysics equipment in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeoecology. teachers, scholars, and postgraduates in those matters also will locate it useful.
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Extra resources for Nuclear Geophysics: Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Science
2) where n a is the number of atoms per unit volume of the material. The reciprocal of the linear absorption coefficient is defined as the mean free path: λ= 1 . 3) The ratio of the linear absorption coefficient to the density of the medium is the mass absorption coefficient: µ= µ0 . 4) The possible energy change when gamma rays interact with matter can be divided into three ranges. 1). At low energies, gamma rays interact mainly through the photoelectric effect. Compton-effect predominates at intermediate energies and, finally, pair production is the leading process at high energies.
Ferronsky (1956) and Churayev (1965) replaced the two parallel tubes by U-shaped arrangements (“radioactive fork”) consisting of two parallel pointed rods fixed on a frame and pressed into the ground to the required depth. The gamma-ray source was a 60Co or 137Cs preparation located at the lower pointed end of one of the rods and the detector (gas-filled counter) was placed at the end of the other rod (Fig. 8c). The counting equipment was first calibrated under laboratory conditions, using materials of known density, so that a graph was obtained of the counting rate as a function of density, or a preliminary determination was made of μeff.
6 Determination of Soil Density by Gamma-Ray Absorption The most widely used methods are the following: a. 8a, c); b. 8b). , a much lower counting rate. This means that unless the source activity is increased, the statistical counting errors become greater. On the other hand, higher source activities are undesirable from the point of view of radiation hazard. Density determinations from gamma-ray absorption have been popular since 1955. Most of the early work on bulk-density determination involved measurements of horizontal absorption of a gamma-ray beam between two parallel tubes.