By J. E. Fisher, H. B. Gatland and P. Hammond (Auth.)
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Extra info for Operational Amplifiers, Oscillators and Digital Techniques. Electronics from Theory Into Practice
Voltage follower gain-frequency characteristic. or corner frequency, at approximately 10 Hz, to below unity gain. This characteristic is specially designed to enable operation in the feedback mode to be free from oscillation. e. the amplifier with no feedback, is small. 1, the application of negative feedback extends the bandwidth by the factor (1 + Aß), or in the case of the follower where ß = 1, by (1 + A). As A is 105 the bandwidth is extended from the open-loop value of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The closed-loop voltage follower response is drawn as a horizontal line on the unity gain axis, meeting the open-loop curve at the NEGATIVE FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS 239 closed-loop bandwidth upper frequency.
The system of Fig. 18 has several disadvantages. -2Fig. 18. Monitoring a capacitor voltage with a FET source follower. (a) The gate-source voltage varies with input voltage, thereby reducing linearity (see Fig. 20). (b) Output voltage is positive with respect to the gate voltage. (c) Gain is somewhat less than that of a bipolar transistor. (d) The maximum current which can be passed is that when the gate-source voltage is zero (loss). 25 mA for the device whose characteristics are shown in Fig.
RE is chosen to provide a reasonable standing current, usually considerably less than -tL(max)· (2) VL > 0. Load current flows through the upper emitter resistor, increasing the voltage across it, thereby reducing the voltage available to the lower resistor, and consequently reducing I2. At some larger value of VL, LRE = VF - VBE\, and T2 will no longer be forward biased and will stop conducting. The load current is now equal to L, and the total dissipation is IL(VCC - VL) = ^(Vcc (3) - VL). VL < 0.