By C. Ronco, C. Crepaldi, D.N. Cruz
The significance of peritoneal dialysis (PD) within the remedy of persistent kidney disorder has been gradually expanding. The simultaneous development in scientific perform and uncomplicated learn has elevated total wisdom and ended in major development within the secure and sufficient program of PD. furthermore, integration with different options within the treatment of uremia represents a big step within the optimization of the full application of renal alternative treatment. major specialists within the box have contributed to this quantity, discussing themes corresponding to the biology of the peritoneal membrane, dialysis strategies, irritation and nutrients, PD adequacy, or problems and their administration or PD in particular settings. This compilation updates and expands the knowledge on PD released in prior volumes of the sequence Contributions to Nephrology . It represents an immense resource of knowledge for newbies and specialists, easy scientists and medical physicians, scholars and investigators who are looking to have a real replace on present learn and scientific perform in peritoneal dialysis.
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Additional info for Peritoneal Dialysis: From Basic Concepts to Clinical Excellence (Contributions to Nephrology Vol 163)
This can be explained by a slight decrease in the effective peritoneal vascular surface area (reﬂected by small solute transport) during the same period. This allows a greater amount of glucose in the peritoneal cavity to maintain a crystalloid osmotic gradient. Or it possibly suggests an upregulation of AQP-1 . The contribution of FWT to TCUF continued thereafter, together with an increase in small solute transport, meaning that the contribution of SCWT decreased. Possibly an increase in the resistance of the peritoneal membrane to ﬂuid transport, as judged from a decreasing hydraulic permeability in this study and a hypothetical greater amount of AQP-1s in the increase vascular surface area can be of importance in this ﬁnding.
Rippe B, Venturoli D: Simulations of osmotic ultraﬁltration failure in CAPD using a serial threepore membrane/ﬁber matrix model. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2007;292:F1035–F1043. Davies SJ, Bryan J, Phillips L, et al: Longitudinal changes in peritoneal kinetics: the effects of peritoneal dialysis and peritonitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996;11:498–506. Davies SJ, Phillips L, Naish PF, et al: Peritoneal glucose exposure and changes in membrane solute transport with time on peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001;12:1046–1051.
Cell membrane, namely kind off blebbing. Then cells enter into the execution phase the duration of which is around 90 h, showing besides the blebbing of the plasma membrane, fast shrinkage of the cytoplasm that becomes denser, as well as condensation of the nuclear chromatin. Typically, nuclei appear as compact, kidney-shaped structures (ﬁg. 1b). Cells undergoing apoptosis can also be identiﬁed by means of immunohistochemistry (TUNEL or annexin staining). Finally, the common pathway of most apoptotic cells is phagocytosis by healthy, younger neighbors or by phagocytes, without any inﬂammatory reaction (ﬁg.