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The sequence of foreign Symposia on Spatial information dealing with began in Zurich, Switzerland, in 1984. on the grounds that then it has developed right into a biennial occasion of excessive calibre, at which fresh tendencies and advancements in geographic info technological know-how are mentioned. The lawsuits of this sequence became a major reference for researchers and scholars within the box of geography, cartography, and geoinformation.
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Extra info for Progress in Spatial Data Handling: 12th International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling
The application of fuzzy logic allow these formalisms to reason under vagueness and imprecision [3,4]. As a consequence, qualitative reasoning formalisms offer benefits to both usability and querying capability in GIS, as demonstrated by TreeSap, thus resolving many of the existing key issues. The notion of the ‘relative feature’ offers a completely new approach to representing spatial information that can be effectively combined with possibly incomplete, absolute numerical data, to derive further relevant information.
The TreeSap GIS application was produced to address these issues, by demonstrating a qualitative reasoning approach along with different visualization methods. TreeSap’s querying and visualization approaches are discussed in the following sections. 4 TreeSap – Qualitative Reasoning GIS TreeSap (Topographic Reasoning Application) is a desktop GIS application that provides powerful spatial reasoning tools, with a strong emphasis on usability. TreeSap was produced as an example of how the interface into a powerful query tool can be intuitive and simple to use, without requiring an understanding of mathematics, computer science, or artificial intelligence.
Region Connection Calculus (RCC) proposed by Randell et al.  is another approach to qualitative spatial reasoning. RCC describes relationships between different spatial regions based on their topological properties, and is thus independent of any coordinate system . Regions are defined to be the primitive type, with a primitive relation ‘X connects with Y’: C(X,Y) [4,9]. RCC8 is a system which selects a set of eight of these basic relations, such that the set covers any possible physical relation between two regions, and such that there can be no physical relation which is an instance of two basic relation types [4,9].